أولئك على هدى من ربهم وأولئك هم المفلحون
Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful.[2:5]
- Why not say هؤلاء – these? Those, is used for objects that are far; shows their high level and rank.
- What did they do? Followed the previous ayats.
- Why mention from their lord? For honour and nobility, as Allah is mentioned next to them.
- Who is a Falaah? A farmer when he is about to reap the harvest; he reached their with a lot of exertion and toil. Implication: Success requires hard work.
- Why is a noun used? Verbs are temporary. Implication: They will always be successful.
- Why mention Al? Makes the group specific; a lot of people claim they are guided and are successful.
Ibn Kathir: Allah did not mention what they are successful in. Effect: Expansion of Meaning. They will attain success in everything (this world and the hereafter).
- This concludes the description of the first group of people. All praise is for Allah SWT!
وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
And who believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter they are certain [in faith].[2:4]
- Previous description continued.
- What is sent to Prophet SAW? The Quran.
- Was sent before. This is past revelation.
- Why is future revelation not mentioned? Proof against Qadiyaanies.
- What does Yaqeen mean? Used for unflinching belief in something and conviction about something (Imam Raghib). Yaqeen is stronger than Imaan.
Did you know:
- The previous ayah was addressing the Qureish of Makkah; a general invitation.
- This ayah is addressing the Jews of Madinah. Hence the scriptures are mentioned.
- The description began with imaan and ends with imaan, and finally concludes with the highest level — yaqeen.
الذين يؤمنون بالغيب ويقيمون الصلاة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون
Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them,
- This is a style of the Quran: Allah mentions a group, and then in the subsequent ayah describes them.
- This word means those who. It creates exclusivity; only these are the Mutaqiin — those who have Taqwa (click here for definition).
What are their qualities?
- 1. Believe in the unseen. Ghaiib is that which is covered.
- 2. Establish Salaah; not a one time or a Friday occurrence; they are continuously doing it — Fard, Sunnah.. etc.
- Whatever — could be small or big.
- Why didn’t Allah specify what is provided? Everything we have is provided by Allah.
- Why is the past-tense used? Since He has given it, He can also take it.
- Want to keep what you have or gain more or gain something better?
- 3. Why is spending not specified? Implication: Spend from whatever you can (your time, wealth, health, knowledge, etc.).
Can you answer these?
- Why say ‘and’ but not ‘or’? We need to be doing all of these things in order to be successful.
- Why use the future-tense? Implies continuity; not a one-time occurence.
- What is the relationship? The most important action we need is imaan. The greatest manifestation of that is Salaah. Spending is a sign if Salaah is having an impact (Zamkhashari: The Quran consistently combines Salaah and Zaaakah.).
- This ayah moves from the smallest to the biggest. How?
- How does this ayah contain imaan and islam?
ذلك الكتاب لا ريبَ فيه هدى للمتقين
That is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah.
- This is the greatest ayah describing the Qur’an.
- Why didn’t Allah say this? That is used for objects that are far and high (e.g. stars). Effect: shows the grandeur, nobility, loftiness, and status of the Quran.
- Why didn’t Allah say a book? The Quran contains the summaries of all the previous scriptures.
- What type of la-لا is this? لا النافية للجنس . The meaning rendered is an absolute negation; there is nooooooooooooooooooooooooooo….. way there is any doubt.
- Why not say شك ? is ريب the smallest conceivable form of doubt. Allah even negated this!
- What type of guidance is it? التنوين يفيد لتعظيم. The tanween — the daaan sound — makes it colossal guidance. The ayaats of the Quran are our guide to reach Jannah, just as the stars.