4:1-4

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.(4:1)

  • When the whole of creation is addressed, Allah said fear your Rabb — your master.
  • But when the injunction is specific, we are commanded to fear Allah.
  • Rubobbiya (Allah is your Rub) has endearment; Uloohiya (Allah is the one who deserves worship) has intimidation.
  • اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ ربكم الذي رباكم وأنعم عليكم فذكر بالربوبية، وفي الأمر الثاني لما كان فيه أوامر خاصة وفيها تعبد لله عز وجل ذكّر بالألوهية. والربوبية فيها تحبب والألوهية فيها تخويف للناس ألا يدعوا أوامر الله سبحانه وتعالى وأن يحذروا من أن يخالفوا أمره جل وعلا

4:1-3

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.(4:1)

  • Men are mentioned first since they are the ones usually in authority, and hence should be the first to fulfill the injunctions contained in this chapter.
  • Dr. Muhammad ibn Abdul Aziz Al-Khadiri:  قدّم الرجال لكونهم هم المطالَبون بأن يؤدوا هذه الحقوق بشكل أكبر وقدّمهم أيضًأ لأنهم أكمل ولأن لهم القوامة ووصف بالكثرة لبيان أن كثرة الرجال نعمة فإذا كثرت النساء صار من البلاء ما الله به عليم! ولذلك في آخر الزمان يكون للخمسين امرأة قيّم واحد  وهذا من علامات فساد الزمان وقرب نهاية العالم

4:1-2

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.(4:1)

  • Why is زَوْجَ used and not امرأة? The former is used for pairs. Implication: Husband and wife need each other, complement one another, and complete each other; they need to be merciful, in order to fulfill each others rights.

4:1

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.(4:1)

  • Why began with addressing the whole of mankind and not just the believers? The commands and the injunctions — rights of the orphan, rights of women, who to marry, etc. —  found in this chapter are universal to all of humanity.
  • Only two chapters in this Qur’an began with this address. This chapter is about the beginning of creation, while Surah Hajj is about the beginning of the next life.

PS. Insh’Allah starting now and during Ramadan, I will post one very small reminder everyday.

5. You want success?

أولئك على هدى من ربهم وأولئك هم المفلحون

 Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful.[2:5]

  • Why not say هؤلاء these? Those, is used for objects that are far; shows their high level and rank.
  • What did they do? Followed the previous ayats.
  • Why mention from their lord? For honour and nobility, as Allah is mentioned next to them.
  • Who is a Falaah? A farmer when he is about to reap the harvest; he reached their with a lot of exertion and toil. Implication: Success requires hard work.
  • Why is a noun used? Verbs are temporary. Implication: They will always be successful.
  • Why mention Al? Makes the group specific; a lot of people claim they are guided and are successful.

Ibn Kathir: Allah did not mention what they are successful in. Effect: Expansion of Meaning. They will attain success in everything (this world and the hereafter).

  • This concludes the description of the first group of people. All praise is for Allah SWT!

4. Imaan Continued

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

And who believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter they are certain [in faith].[2:4]

  • Previous description continued.
  • What is sent to Prophet SAW? The Quran.
  • Was sent before. This is past revelation.
  • Why is future revelation not  mentioned? Proof against Qadiyaanies.
  • What does Yaqeen mean? Used for unflinching belief in something and conviction about something (Imam Raghib). Yaqeen is stronger than Imaan.

Did you know:

  • The previous ayah was addressing the Qureish of Makkah; a general invitation.
  • This ayah is addressing the Jews of Madinah. Hence the scriptures are mentioned.
  • The description began with imaan and ends with imaan, and finally concludes with the highest level — yaqeen.

3. Who are the Mutaqieen?

الذين يؤمنون بالغيب ويقيمون الصلاة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون

Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them,

  • This is a style of the Quran: Allah mentions a group, and then in the subsequent ayah describes them.
  • This word means those who. It creates exclusivity; only these are the Mutaqiin — those who have Taqwa (click here for definition).

What are their qualities?

  • 1. Believe in the unseen. Ghaiib is that which is covered.
  • 2. Establish Salaah; not a one time or a Friday occurrence; they are continuously doing it — Fard, Sunnah.. etc.
  • Whatever — could be small or big.
  • Why didn’t Allah specify what is provided? Everything we have is provided by Allah.
  • Why is the past-tense used? Since He has given it, He can also take it.
  • Want to keep what you have or gain more or gain something better?
  • 3. Why is spending not specified? Implication: Spend from whatever you can (your time, wealth, health, knowledge, etc.).

Can you answer these?

  • Why say ‘and’ but not ‘or’? We need to be doing all of these things in order to be successful.
  • Why use the future-tense? Implies continuity; not a one-time occurence.
  • What is the relationship? The most important action we need is imaan. The greatest manifestation of that is Salaah. Spending is a sign if Salaah is having an impact (Zamkhashari: The Quran consistently combines Salaah and Zaaakah.).
  • This ayah moves from the smallest to the biggest. How?
  • How does this ayah contain imaan and islam?